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Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-sectional Study

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 2 ]


Florence Gunawan, Hui Yi Ng, Christopher Gilfillan and Mahesan Anpalahan *   Pages 135 - 143 ( 9 )


Background: Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is not yet routine in clinical practice.

Objectives: To quantify abnormal ABP patterns and their associations with diabetic complications, and to assess the reliability of office blood pressure (OBP) for assessing BP in T2DM.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, eligible patients with T2DM underwent OBP and 24- hour ABP measurements under standardized conditions and screening for diabetic complications.

Results: 56 patients (mean age 67 ± 10 years, males 50%) completed assessment. 43(73%) had a known history of hypertension. Non-dipping and nocturnal systolic hypertension (SHT) were prevalent in 31(55%) and 32(57%) patients, respectively. 16(29%) demonstrated masked phenomenon, but only three (7%) demonstrated white coat effect. Nocturnal SHT had a significant association with composite microvascular complications independent of daytime systolic BP control (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.72(CI 1.41-4.25). There was no association between other abnormal ABP patterns and diabetic complications. The sensitivity and specificity of OBP for diagnosing HT or assessing BP control was 59% and 68% respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 74% and 52% respectively.

Conclusion: Non-dipping, reverse dipping, nocturnal SHT and masked phenomenon are highly prevalent in patients with T2DM with or without a known history of hypertension. Compared with non-dipping, nocturnal SHT may be a stronger predictor of end organ damage. The reliability of OBP for assessing BP in T2DM is only modest. Patients with T2DM are likely to benefit from routine ABP monitoring.


Ambulatory blood pressure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non dipping, nocturnal hypertension, masked hypertension.


Department of Endocrinology, Eastern Health, Victoria, Department of General Medicine, Eastern Health, Victoria, Department of Endocrinology, Eastern Health, Victoria, Department of General Medicine, Eastern Health, Victoria

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