Dewan S.A. Majid, Minolfa C. Prieto and Luis Gabriel Navar Pages 38 - 48 ( 11 )
Salt sensitive hypertension is characterized by increases in blood pressure in response to increases in dietary salt intake and is associated with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular and renal morbidity. Although researchers have sought for decades to understand how salt sensitivity develops in humans, the mechanisms responsible for the increases in blood pressure in response to high salt intake are complex and only partially understood. Until now, scientists have been unable to explain why some individuals are salt sensitive and others are salt resistant. Although a central role for the kidneys in the development of salt sensitivity and hypertension has been generally accepted, it is also recognized that hypertension is of multifactorial origin and a variety of factors can induce, or prevent, blood pressure responsiveness to the manipulation of salt intake. Excess salt intake in susceptible persons may also induce inappropriate central and sympathetic nervous system responses and increase the production of intrarenal angiotensin II, catecholamines and other factors such as oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. One key factor is the concomitant inappropriate or paradoxical activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, by high salt intake. This is reflected by the increases in urinary angiotensinogen during high salt intake in salt sensitive models. A complex interaction between neuroendocrine factors and the kidney may underlie the propensity for some individuals to retain salt and develop salt-dependent hypertension. In this review, we focus mainly on the renal contributions that provide the mechanistic links between chronic salt intake and the development of hypertension.
Angiotensin II, angiotensinogen, inflammatory cytokines, intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, oxidative stress, peroxynitrite, tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
Department of Physiology, SL39, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.